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Sterlite is the leading copper producer in India. In 2007-08, we produced 339,294 tonnes of copper. Our highest ever production. The copper business comprises smelting and processing of copper and production of its byproducts. Our operations include a smelter, refinery, phosphoric acid plant, sulphuric acid plant and copper rod plant at Tuticorin in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India; and a refinery and two copper rod plants at Silvassa in the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in western India.

In addition, we own the Mt. Lyell copper mine at Tasmania in Australia, which produces a clean concentrate that is valuable in the smelting process, to meet around 8% of our copper concentrate requirements at Sterlite. The Tuticorin smelter was in lowest cost quartile among all copper smelting operations in the world; and the refineries at Tuticorin and Silvassa were globally ranked seventh-lowest and eighth-lowest in production costs.

The performance of our copper business is given in Table.

Particulars 2007-08 2006-07 % change
Production volumes (“000 tonnes)
  Mined metal content


Cash settlement prices (US$ Per Tonne)


Unit costs (US$ per lb)
Realised TC/RC (US cents per lb)
Revenue (Rs crore)
EBITDA (Rs crore)
EBITDA Margin (%)
Operating profit (Rs crore)
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Unit Costs

Unit conversion costs, which consist of costs of smelting and refining, have reduced significantly to 1.8 cents per lb in 2007-08, compared to 6.1 cents per lb last year. Higher energy prices and fixed cost have been offset by better byproduct realisation and substantial operational recoveries. The sharp reduction in unit cost of production reflects our relentless focus on this area. We have taken up various TQM programmes which should result to further improvements in process and technical efficiency.
Given our growing output of byproducts, especially sulphuric acid, and our skills in selling these at best possible prices, we hope to achieve a state where the revenue obtained from by-product sales will exceed the total cost of production – thus achieving negative unit cost of production in the coming years.

Treatment Charges and Refining Charges (TC/RC)

2007-08 witnessed a tightening in the global concentrate market, mainly due to cutback in production of the second largest mine in the world combined with increased refining capacities and aggressive buying of concentrates in China. Spot markets were extremely firm. During fourth quarter of 2007-08, TC ruled at around US$ 20 per tonne of concentrate, and RC at 2 cents per lb of copper (i.e. around US$ 110 per tonne). This resulted in a reduction in TC/RC compared to 2006-07. Negotiations for the 2008 Annual Frame Contracts for concentrates have been completed and the benchmark
TC/RC has been established at 45/4.5 (i.e. US$ 45 per tonne of concentrate for TC and US cent 4.5 per lb of copper for RC) with various improvements in the side terms such as quotation period, payment terms and gold/silver refining charges. Sterlite has concluded all its annual negotiations around similar levels with substantial improvements on side terms. Even so, the concentrate market is expected to be in a state of deficit for next couple of years. This may result in further softening of the TC/RC terms for the Company in the near term.

Sales: Copper

The Company’s efforts towards market development in India have paid dividends. Our domestic sale has increased by 35% to 157,071 tonnes in 2007-08 compared to previous year, and we accounted for 29% of the market in India. We also exported 180,035 tonnes of copper cathodes and copper rods, to our key overseas markets – the Middle East, China, Japan, Philippines and Thailand. We continue to develop a sizeable customer base for the export of copper rods.

Financial Performance

Revenues from our copper business rose by 8% to Rs. 12,658 crore in 2007- 08. However, despite major reductions in the cost of production, the combined effect of a 50% fall in TC/RCs, over 11% appreciation in the rupee against the US dollar and increasing fuel prices led to a 30% reduction in operating profits (EBIT) to Rs. 998 crore.

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